“A man’s patrilineal ancestry, or male-line ancestry, can be traced using the DNA on his Y chromosome (Y-DNA) through Y-STR testing. This is useful because the Y chromosome passes down almost unchanged from father to son, ie, the non recombining and sex determining regions of the Y chromosome do not change. A man’s test results are compared to another man’s results to determine the time frame in which the two individuals shared a most recent common ancestor or MRCA. If their test results are a perfect, or nearly perfect match, they are related within genealogy’s time frame.”
DNA Findings, a division of Genealogy by Genetics, LTD, AABB Accredited conducted DNA analysis for a DNA study commissioned by Miller descendants. They reported “Kinship Test Results” on March 22, 2011. The authors of this document identified descendants of two children of Rinear and Ann Miller who were willing to participate in a DNA study. Using chain of evidence procedures, DNA was collected from a male descendant of each of the suspected brothers, Harrison (Hiram) Miller, and Nelson Miller (aka Gustave Blair). DNA analysis determined that Harrison (Hiram) Miller had a “99.99903% probability of kinship” with Nelson Miller, meaning that they were, in fact brothers – they shared the same paternal linage, a perfect 37/37 7-STR marker match. Gustave Blair was a Miller, Nelson Miller. He could not have been Charley Ross.
In 1943, the man who was born Nelson Miller, changed his name to Gustave Blair and in 1939 was declared by an Arizona jury to be Charley Ross, died. The official record states he died as “Charles Bruster Ross.” (The certificate was later changed from “Bruster” to “Brewster”).
Nelson Miller’s victory in a Maricopa County courtroom as Gustave Blair was, and still is, reported to have solved the disappearance of Charley Ross, but it was met with considerable skepticism. DNA evidence clearly supports the sad declaration made by the Ross family 146 years ago – that Charles Brewster Ross, the kidnapped child, is still lost.